The highly-corrosive environments frequently found in the smelting and refining industries benefit from the corrosion-resistant properties of lead. Lining tanks or chambers with lead can offer significant protective advantages, as is exemplified in the lead-lined chambers of Glover towers and electrostatic precipitators. The latter use lead “Star Wire” centered in lead tube to remove impurities from the acid-laden atmosphere within the precipitator. The use of extruded lead tubes also allows for the safe transport of waste water, acids, and corrosive chemicals, making them suitable for acid production, refining and storage facilities. The strictest standards of safety and expertise should be employed when working in such potentially dangerous environments. Facilities such as precipitators benefit from regular professional refurbishing, including the installation of lead tubes and star-wire.